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Job Positions at Development Alternatives, Inc (DAI)

DAI is an international development company. For more than 45 years, we have worked on the frontlines of international development, tackling fundamental social and economic development problems caused by inefficient markets, ineffective governance, and instability. Currently, DAI is delivering results that matter in some 80 countries. We are recruiting to fill the position below:

Job Title: Poverty Assessment Officer, MADE

Job Code: 3130
Location: Nigeria

Background

Market Development in the Niger Delta (MADE), a £14m DFID funded programme being implemented by Development Alternatives Incorporated (DAI), is a rural and agricultural market systems development programme for the nine states of the Niger Delta.
The programme seeks to increase the incomes of at least 150,000 poor men and women in the Niger Delta.
MADE adopts a market development approach to support growth in the region’s non-oil economy by:Stimulating sustainable, pro-poor growth in selected agricultural and agricultural input markets, and
Improving the position of economically active poor and women in these markets by making them more inclusive.
The ultimate goal being to address the causes of poverty with an expected impact of increased incomes for 150,000 poor people, 50% of whom are women in nine states of the Niger Delta, over a four and half year period (2013-2018).
MADE programme focuses on value chains in which planned interventions are most likely to have the maximum impact on wealth creation and employment, particularly among women, beginning with palm oil, household poultry, fisheries, cassava and agricultural inputs.
In Year 2 (April 2015- March 2016), the programme added finished leather goods sector and a cross-cutting access to finance sector. Annex 1 provides a list of MADE interventions in each of the value chains to date.
The interventions listed in Annex 1 are supported by three cross cutting initiatives namely; access to finance, gender and advocacy and communications.
In each of the value chains, MADE applies the ‘Making Markets Work for the Poor’ (M4P) approach by identifying the underlying systemic constraints of why markets do not work for the poor in the value chain, and thereafter facilitate change to the behaviour, capabilities, incentives and relationships of market systems in order to improve the market systems and create the conditions for markets to be continuously strengthened even beyond the lifetime of the programme.
The design phase of the MADE programme (September 2013 to February 2014) focused on establishing the project in the Niger Delta as well as conducting thematic and technical research and analysis. This enabled MADE to select and design sector interventions aligned to the programme’s objectives.
The selected sectors are palm oil, aquaculture, smoked fish, and poultry, along with the service sector of agricultural inputs
The Pilot phase started in March 2014 and ran up to 31 August 2014.
The focus of this phase was on prototyping, testing and refining interventions through demonstration activities across three selected value chains – Agricultural inputs, fisheries and oil palm.
Other activities included to test the assumptions laid out in the sectorial analyses, set up the baseline for the M&E performance measurement, and develop a network of private sector partnerships for collaboration.
The Implementation phase will have a life span of 3-5 years, starting in September 2014 and ending on 28 February 2018.
Objective

The purpose of this assignment is to better understand the poor and their context.
The assessment, which is intended to analyse the incidence of poverty within the context of MADE Programme sectors and interventions will generate up-to-date and accurate information on the nature and causes of poverty by collecting relevant information from targeted MADE value chains.
Findings from this study will support decision making and the programme strategic planning.
The study will also promote the involvement and/or participation of key stakeholders and beneficiaries to enhance buy-in, and eventual ownership of the change process that is key to program success and sustainability.
Scope of Work

The poverty assessment is based on the understanding that a market which works for the poor is one which expands the choices available to poor people and produces market outcomes that benefit the poor.
These outcomes include job opportunities with attractive wage rates, better returns on goods sold, and greater affordability of important products and services.
It is also expected that the participation of the poor in these key markets should increase over time.
The implementation of the study will comprise two main phases – a first phase that will involve literature review and development of the assessment methodology (including design of tools) and the implementation (data collection) phase.
Specific tasks to be undertaken during the two-phase assessment are outlined in the proposed order below:

Literature review of existing documentation, including sector analysis carried out by the project team, other program documents (including results chains and indicators) and other context specific published and unpublished documents that will provide a good understanding of the poverty and context of the MADE’s activities.
Given that findings from literature review can shape the scope of a study largely, the literature review should be completed before design of the tools .
Development of tools and methodology for the study. This will include drafting of appropriate survey tools, appropriate sampling strategies and a data collection plan.
Implementation of the poverty study and preparation of the study report. This phase will consist of:
Field data collection on the current level of key results indicators and complementary information that will help guide MADE’s implementation and enhance the understanding of poverty.
Drafting of the study report . The proposed report format is in Section VIII below.
Specific Objectives

The poverty assessment will be conducted to help MADE define more coherently who is “poor” and “not-so-poor” as well as their characteristics.
Using MADE’s definition of the poor in each sector vis-à-vis the World Bank poverty index, the study is intended to support MADE measure  poverty levels i.e. the proportion of MADE beneficiary groups disaggregated by gender who live below the poverty line or are on the verge of falling below the poverty line.
In addition, the study should contribute new knowledge that addresses the following issues and themes:How poverty and social factors, such as gender, ethnicity, age, marital status,  urban/rural location, affect people’s access to goods and services, resources, economic opportunities, information, and/or decision making in MADE’s sector
How these factors affect people’s vulnerability to chronic or sudden risks in the sectors
The formal and informal mechanisms that enable poor, disadvantaged, and marginalized groups to participate in the sector
The extent to which social networks, self-help groups, and other mechanisms enable poor and marginalized groups to benefit from development initiatives and manage social and economic risks in the sector
In light of the foregoing, how are MADE’s interventions in the Niger Delta supporting more inclusive growth
In addition, the study should update the average household size in the Niger Delta. The Business Case indicates an average household size of 5 for the Niger Delta.
Generic Question

The assessment should be conducted in a way that the findings provide answers to the following generic questions.
What are the likely consequences of MADE interventions, positive and negative?
Who is likely to benefit or to be adversely affected by the interventions?
What are the broad characteristics of these groups and any relevant subgroups?
What poverty and/or social issues need to be examined further (such as poverty/inequality, gender, environmental pollution, labour, affordability, HIV/AIDS, human trafficking, or other issues)?
Proposed Methodology

At the end of March 2017, the programme had reached a total of 131,658 farmers and entrepreneurs across the sectors. Given such a target population, a confidence level of 95% and a 5% margin of error it is recommended that a sample size of at least 384 farmers and entrepreneurs could be drawn for the study.
In the course of selecting farmers and entrepreneurs for the study, it is also important to consider a wide range of variability factors within the target population. These include gender, crop type, location, etc.
A mix of approaches (both quantitative and qualitative) is proposed for this assessment and should include such methods as use of survey questionnaires, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions.
A complementary tool that can be used for this assessment is the Nigerian Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI) which is a simple, easy to administer and statistically rigorous ten-question scorecard that will allow quick and easy calculations of poverty likelihood of a sample of households of small and medium scale farmers and entrepreneurs.
The assessment team is expected to design and conduct the assessment, employing best practice in poverty assessment and delivery methodologies.
Key Deliverables
The key deliverables for the assignment are:

An inception report (includes work plan, literature review, and survey questionnaire) to be submitted to MADE for review and approval before the start of the fieldwork.
Completed questionnaires used for the survey
A draft report to be submitted to MADE for review within two weeks of the completion of field data collection.
The database with the survey data will be the property of MADE and needs to be delivered at the time of the report in excel or SPSS
A final report detailing the survey findings. This report should include, but not be limited to the following:
An executive summary
Context: Brief description of the poverty assessment location and/or activity clusters
Poverty assessment survey design and methodology
Detailed findings of the poverty assessment survey in qualitative and quantitative (descriptive statistics, tables, charts, etc.) format,
Project zone opportunities, constraints and risks
Recommendations
Annexes
Poverty assessment tools
Bibliography
List and contact of persons interviewed
List of tables, graphs, etc.
Qualifications and Experience
The following qualifications and experiences are desirable:

An advanced Degree in Economics, Agricultural Economics, Social Sciences or a related field is preferred.
Minimum of 10 years’ experience in consulting focusing on development research;
Familiarity with market systems programmes, preferably economic growth portfolios;
Experience with defining and measuring poverty within the context of market systems development programmes;
Excellent verbal and written communication skills in English and;
Strong interpersonal skills and experience of working with partner organisations.
Timeframe

We estimate that this assignment will start in mid-June to late June 2017 and will take about 28 working days with a final report submitted by 31 August 2017.

How to ApplyClick here to apply online

Job Title: Independent Consultant, MADEJob Code: 3129
Location: Nigeria
Terms of Reference: Midterm Internal Assessment

Description

Market Development in the Niger Delta
Programme Summary

Market Development in the Niger Delta (MADE), a £14m DFID funded programme being implemented by Development Alternatives Incorporated (DAI), is a rural and agricultural market systems development programme for the nine states of the Niger Delta.
The programme design is based on the recognition that poverty is the result of the structure of market systems in which the poor participate. The approach is also based on the understanding that when markets work efficiently and produce equitable outcomes for the poor [3], such markets become powerful vehicles for delivering growth and poverty reduction.
MADE is using the M4P approach to drive sustainable development at scale in the Niger Delta, is focusing on poor women and men who strive to earn a living in the Niger Delta. By raising incomes and improving market linkages, the programme has an opportunity to help to both address poverty and contribute to longer term stability.
MADE programme focuses on value chains in which planned interventions are most likely to have the maximum impact on wealth creation and employment, particularly among women, beginning with palm oil, household poultry, fisheries, cassava and agricultural inputs.
In Year 2 (April 2015- March 2016), the programme added finished leather goods sector and a cross-cutting access to finance sector. In each of the value chains, MADE applies the ‘Making Markets Work for the Poor’ (M4P) approach by identifying the underlying systemic constraints of why markets do not work for the poor in the value chain, and thereafter facilitate change to the behaviour, capabilities, incentives and relationships of market systems in order to improve the market systems and create the conditions for markets to be continuously strengthened even beyond the lifetime of the programme.
The design phase of the MADE programme (September 2013 to February 2014) focused on establishing the project in the Niger Delta as well as conducting thematic and technical research and analysis. This enabled MADE to select and design sector interventions aligned to the programme’s objectives. The selected sectors are palm oil, aquaculture, smoked fish, and poultry, along with the service sector of agricultural inputs.
The Pilot phase started in March 2014 and ran up to 31 August 2014. The focus of this phase was on prototyping, testing and refining interventions through demonstration activities across three selected value chains – Agricultural inputs, fisheries and oil palm. Other activities included to test the assumptions laid out in the sectorial analyses, set up the baseline for the M&E performance measurement, and develop a network of private sector partnerships for collaboration.
The current Implementation phase has a life span of 3-5 years, starting in September 2014 and ending on 28 February 2018. A final evaluation of the programme will be conducted in 2020, two years after the implementation phase.
Expected Results

The goal of the Programme is to increase the income of at least 150,000 poor men and women in the Niger Delta by promoting a market development programme that supports the non-oil economy by (a) stimulating sustainable, pro-poor growth in selected rural markets, and (b) improving the position of poor men and women in these markets, to make them more inclusive for poor people.
Implementation of the MADE Programme is expected to result in systemic change in each of the target markets. These changes, which include greater efficiency and production of resources, should benefit the poor in the different target markets. For smallholder farmers, such benefits can include improved access to input and support services that drive primary production and more efficient processing, which will then result in increased yield/productivity and sales and eventual increased gross margins. Entrepreneurs on the other hand, are expected to experience higher margins, increased volumes and improved market access. Even consumers are expected to benefit from the programme in terms of better access to products and services, lower prices and wider choices.
MADE Programme logframe, recently revised, contains a total of nine key performance indicators, two at impact level, two at outcome level and a total of five at the output level. The goal of the programme is to increase the income of smallholder farmers and entrepreneurs in target markets. For this reason, the two impact indicators are measure beneficiaries’ income change attributable to the programme.
The outcome level indicators capture both the benefits of market systems improvement such as higher yield/productivity and sales for smallholder farmers and entrepreneurs (Outcome indicator 1) as well as target beneficiaries’ adoption of innovations and best practices introduced through the market development interventions. Given the facilitative role of MADE, the Programme works through lead firms, who then engage with local service providers to reach smallholder farmers and entrepreneurs.
Two outputs are expected from implementation of the planned interventions. The first focuses on better access to inputs, products, technologies and services, while the second focuses on how the programme influences a wide range of actors (development agencies, support service providers at the private, public, and NGO level and private investors) to change their approach to engaging with the poor in the Niger Delta region.
The two outputs were designed to be interlinked in the MADE logframe and to feed off one another to create a sounder environment for change. This is based on the argument that it takes strong and committed partners to engage with MADE to deliver the results, but to ensure sustainability of outcomes, the partners must own (and continually adapt) their interventions and develop new ones.
Purpose of the Assessment

MADE is seeking an independent consultant to conduct a mid-term internal assessment of the Market Development Programme in the Niger Delta at the output and outcome levels.
The assessment will identify successes, lessons learned, effectiveness of MADE as a project, and help inform future activities under MADE project.
Scope of Work

The purpose of the assignment is to assess the progress towards effectiveness (outputs to outcomes) and to understand the pathways to impact through testing the outcome to impact assumptions in the theory of change (refer Annex 1) that underpins this project.
The evaluation, in examining the logical framework and other documents, and in consultation with project proponents, must also identify unexpected or unplanned issues that may have hindered or facilitated the success of the project. Additionally, the review is expected to outline the lessons learned, which is aimed at capturing key lessons to assess what worked best during project implementation.
Specific Objectives

The midterm internal assessment has two primary objectives. These are:To examine, as far as possible, the effectiveness of individual interventions under the MADE and;
To provide recommendations for improving implementation during the remainder of the programme duration and aid the design/implementation of similar future programmes in future.
Furthermore, the midterm internal assessment is expected to go beyond assessing implementation of project activities, reach and the effects of interventions on end-users. It should also assess:The overall relevance of the project, in the Niger Delta context, in influencing private sector investment;
Its potential for sustainable economic growth and,
Its potential for wider replicability/adaptability of some of the activities in similar locations and other future interventions/programmes.
Evaluation Questions

It is expected that the assessment questions will be guided by the OECD DAC criteria for evaluating development assistance, which are: relevance, efficiency, effectiveness, impact and sustainability.
The additional criteria of coverage and inclusiveness are also relevant here. It is anticipated that the evaluation will address the following questions:
Mid-Term Evaluation for DFID MADE project
Category:

Relevance
Type of Questions to Consider:

To what extent are the objectives of the MADE still valid?
Is the MADE supporting activities/projects/programmes that are consistent with the overall objectives of the project?
Are the activities of the MADE consistent with the intended impacts and effects of the project?
What contribution has the project made or is expected to make to reducing poverty and gender inclusiveness in the Niger Delta?
Category:

Effectiveness
Type of Questions to Consider:

To what extent have outcomes been delivered/likely to be achieved?
What are the major factors influencing the achievement or non-achievement of outcomes?
To what extent has the project delivered its intended outputs to time and to cost?
How have benefits been distributed among the poor and women?
Category:

Efficiency
Type of Questions to Consider:

Were activities cost-efficient? What are major cost drivers for the different types of activities under MADE?
Were projects outputs delivered on time?
Were project activities implemented in the most efficient way compared to alternatives?
Category:

Impact
Type of Questions to Consider:

What change (positive or negative, direct/indirect, intended/non intended), if any, has happened as a result of MADE?
What has been the impact (on local, social, economic, environmental, and other development indicators) of the first three years of project implementation?
What real quantifiable difference has the intervention made to beneficiaries in the above-mentioned areas?
Category:

Sustainability
Type of Questions to Consider:

To what extent will the benefits, outcomes and impacts of the project continue after donor funding ceased?
How did the interventions interact with other factors in the local and regional economy?
What were the major factors which influence (d) the likely achievement or non-achievement of sustainability of the project?
Methodology
A mix of approaches will be most appropriate for the exercise. These are outlined below:

Theory-Driven Approach:

The methodology for the evaluation should be defined in the evaluation plan. It is anticipated that a mix of methods will be adopted to evaluate the programme and the different sectors of the programme. Because of the facilitative and catalytic nature of the programme and the number of interventions [4], a theory-driven approach to evaluation is proposed.
A theory based approach involves looking at, and refining the programme theory of change and identifying the key links in the causal chain, and the assumptions on which they are based, that the evaluation will test. It is also expected that the evaluation reports will include an explicit discussion of the mechanisms that have led to the outcomes of the programme, or why these mechanisms have failed. This also means thinking as robustly as possible about causality and attribution.
Use of a Mix Set of Methods for Data Collection and Analysis:

We expect the consultant to show a track record in delivering mixed-method evaluations. The eventual evaluation design should use a purposeful mix of methods for data collection and analysis that are a) tailored to the evaluation questions and b) represent the most robust combination that is feasible in this context. The mix of methods should include For all evaluation questions, we expect the evaluation to address questions of impact and causality with an approach that is systematic, draws on a range of evidence, and critically review and synthesise the existing body of evidence from outcome and impact assessments over the last one year.
We are especially interested in the relevance of the programme’s outcomes to beneficiaries’ needs, so participatory methods such as focus group discussions may also be appropriate.
Compliance with DCED Standards:

M4P programmes follow the Donor Committee for Enterprise Development (DCED) standard in monitoring their interventions and generate a significant amount of data, research and analysis. This will also be the case with MADE.
The evaluation contract will be expected to avoid duplication and excessive burden on respondents in its own data collection. However the evaluation provider will be collecting its own data for independent assessment.
Key Deliverables
The key deliverables for the assignment are:

An Inception Report by 14 July 2017 (i.e. two weeks after the signing of the contract). This report will include a detailed work plan for the execution of the assignment, methodology to guide the evaluation and the timeline for accomplishment of the tasks of the assignment, including a debriefing meeting prior to submission of the final report.
A Draft Mid-term Evaluation Report that Should:

Be concise and follow the thematic areas identified in Table 1 above. This draft report will be shared with the MADE to enable a review to be undertaken to identify any factual inaccuracies that may need to be addressed,
Detail the number of poor-people assessed as changing knowledge, attitude and practice and increasing income through MADE activities, and disaggregate this by gender, and
Assess value for money or cost effectiveness in terms of risk reduced, losses avoided and comment on the appropriate monitoring and measuring systems for MADE interventions, and on tracking progress and assessing effectiveness (where possible).
This draft report, to be submitted in both hard and soft copies, is expected by 18 August 2017. MADE will provide written comments on the draft at least two (2) weeks after receiving the draft report.
A copy of the final report, in both hard and soft copies, is to be submitted to MADE by 4 September 2017 (i.e. at a maximum of 2 weeks after receiving the written comments from the MADE).
Qualifications and Experience
Two consultants, an international consultant and a local consultant / consulting assistant, are required for this assignment. The CVs of the lead consultant and the local consultant should be attached to the expression of interest and will form part of the proposal evaluation criteria.

The lead consultant for this assignment is expected to have the following desirable qualifications and experiences:

An advanced degree in economics, agricultural economics, social sciences or a related field is preferred.
Minimum of 10 years’ experience in evaluating international development programmes, preferably market systems programmes;
Familiarity with market systems programmes, preferably economic growth portfolios;
Experience working in Nigeria;
Excellent verbal and written communication skills in English and;
Strong interpersonal skills and experience of working with partner organisations.
Evaluation Quality and Ethical Standards

The evaluator will take all reasonable steps to ensure that the security and dignity of affected populations is not compromised and that disruption to on-going operation is minimized.
It is expected that the evaluation will adhere to the ethical and quality standards as outlined in the Evaluation Quality Standards of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) of the OECD at https://www.oecd.org/development/evaluation/qualitystandards.pdf.
Timeframe:

We estimate that this assignment will start in late June 2017 and span about 30 working days with a final report submitted by 4 September 2017.
Institutional Arrangements:

MADE’s Team Leader will oversee this contract and quality of expected work outputs. For the duration of the contract, the consultant will provide key communications and documents to Olatunde Oderinde (Olatunde_Oderinde @dai.com ), Sylvanus Abua ( Sylvanus_Abua@dai.com ) and Yemi Oluwakuyide (Olayemi_Oluwakuyide@dai.com).
Confidentiality Statement:

All data and information received from MADE for the purpose of this assignment are to be treated confidentially and are only to be used in connection with the execution of these Terms of Reference.
All intellectual property rights arising from the execution of these Terms of Reference are assigned to MADE.
The contents of written materials obtained and used in this assignment may not be disclosed to any third parties without the expressed advance written authorization of MADE.
Annex 1: Theory of Change:

A number of changes (in markets, policies, regulations as well as investment levels) are needed to increase the income of the poor in the Niger Delta.

How to Apply

Click here to apply online

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